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Наш проект «Плесень. Друг или враг?» День двадцатый. | Класс39

   
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Наш проект «Плесень. Друг или враг?» День двадцатый.
18 февраля 2016 Елена Владимировна

IMG_372728 января первоАклассники начали исследовательский проект «Плесень: друг или враг», о котором мы писали ЗДЕСЬ. Через 20 дней мы продолжили наше исследование…

Итак, напомним, как выглядели продукты в начале эксперимента…

IMG_20160128_091148

Через 20 дней мы увидели, что не на всех продуктах выросла плесень.

Кожура банана почернела…

IMG_3719

И мы выяснили почему это происходит. Со временем под действием кислорода углеводы, содержащиеся в бананах, распадаются на различные элементы. Из-за этого процесса темнеет банановая мякоть и кожура.

А вот хлеб, который хранился в сухом месте — засох. И сыр тоже. Почему? Вы знаете, что в белом хлебе 25 % воды, в черном еще больше? Так вот, вода со временем испаряется и хлеб становится сухарём.

Кусок сыра… IMG_3720

Яблоко и китайская груша тоже высохли…

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IMG_3723

А вот на мандарине и хурме выросла плесень? Догадались почему? Мандарин и хурма сочные фрукты, значит в  них больше сока/воды. А это то, что нужно для роста плесени — вода, тепло.

Плесень на мандарине…

IMG_3714

Плесень на хурме…

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А вы знаете, что плесень появилась около 200 миллионов лет назад. Это гораздо раньше человека. Она легко приспосабливается ко всему. Плесневым грибкам комфортно в любых условиях: она не боится даже радиации…

Плесень на чёрном хлебе, который мы немного смочили в воде и поместили в полиэтиленовый пакет.

IMG_3713

Плесень на пицце…

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Плесень в банке варенья…IMG_3717

IMG_3718

Плесень на сером хлебе…

IMG_3721

Плесень на алыче…

IMG_3722


Вооружившись цифровым микроскопом, мы рассмотрели плесень…

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Мы убедились, что плесень — это гриб. Это микроскопический гриб, у которого строение схоже со строением лесного гриба: грибница, ножка, шляпка…

4_3

Фото с fb.ru

Мы с интересом изучали этот загадочный мир плесени: сплошные переплетения и разветвления нитей.

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8

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Мы заметили, что на разных продуктах выросла разная плесень — белая, серая, зелёная. А это значит, плесень бывает разных видов.

Вы думаете плесень такая некрасивая и вредная? Да, мы тоже так подумали… НО, изучив информацию в интернете, выяснили…

Некоторые виды плесени считаются полезными, например красная, белая и голубая. С помощью этой плесени изготавливают достаточно вкусные сыры.

branza

Фото с www.gurmania.ru

При этом подобный сыр обладает множеством полезных свойств. В первую очередь в составе такого сыра входит белок, кальций и витамины группы В.

А ещё именно плесень в свое время помогла спасти многие тысячи, и даже миллионы человеческих жизней. Произошло это именно тогда, когда доктор Александр Флеминг открыл одно важное свойство особого вида плесени – антибактериальное.

1427202091_181Это открытие положило начало производству пенициллина, одного из самых действенных лекарственных средств для борьбы с бактериями.

В настоящее время лекарственные препараты из зеленой плесени до сих пор считаются мощным антибактериальным средством.

Penicillium_chrysogenum_CCF_2878_CYA_10-25

Но есть и плесень вредная (увы, её гораздо больше!). Она может разрушить даже бетон, кирпич и штукатурку. Она летает в воздухе и портит продукты питания.

Плесень также может вызывать утомляемость, головные боли и аллергию.

Поэтому ни в коем случае не ешьте обрезанный заплесневелый хлеб, подгнившие фрукты или варенье, на котором образовалась пленка. Эти прожорливые микроорганизмы проникают повсюду. И такой продукт уже целиком поражен спорами плесени.

После наших исследований мы уничтожили все продукты с плесенью и сделали следующие выводы:
1. Плесень — это микроскопический гриб. 
2. Плесень приносит и пользу, и вред.
3. Как и любому живому организму, плесени необходимы влажность и тепло.
4. На разных пищевых продуктах  развиваются разные виды плесени.
5. Необходимо избавляться от продуктов, на которых есть налет.

3 комментария  
  • Альбина writes:
    20 февраля, 201614:39at

    Очень интересно и познавательно !!!)

  • елена writes:
    20 февраля, 201620:03at

    Здорово! С интересом прочитала

  • Валентина Викторовна writes:
    11 октября, 201616:04at

    Молодцы ребята!! У вас очень здорово всё получилось!! Особое спасибо учителю!! Удачи вам во всём!! Творческих успехов!!


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