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18 марта единый урок «Крым в истории России ИЛИ Мы вместе» | Класс39

   
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18 марта единый урок «Крым в истории России ИЛИ Мы вместе»
16 марта 2015 Елена Владимировна

95b56851497774af97055054881b13e518 марта 2015 года исполняется год, когда Президент Российской Федерации В.В. Путин подписал межгосударственный Договор о принятии Крыма и Севастополя в состав Российской Федерации. Воссоединение Крыма с Россией — событие исторического масштаба. Почему так произошло? Обратимся к истории полуострова Крым…

История Крыма очень интересна и овеяна веками. Полуостров Крым находится на востоке Европы… Крым от тюркского слова «кырым», что означает — «вал», «ров», «стена». Огромный ров (вал) 8,5 км был построен 2 тысячи лет назад и разделил материк и полуостров. До XIII века полуостров носил название Таврика (по имени проживавших здесь древних племен тавров).

На протяжении многих веков и тысячелетий древности земля Крыма пережила множество переселений и завоеваний.

map8

В VI – V вв. до н. э. на побережье Крыма поселились выходцы из Древней Греции. В Крым греки привезли свое искусство строить корабли, выращивать виноград, оливковые деревья, воздвигать прекрасные храмы, театры, стадионы. В Крыму возникают сотни греческих поселений.

В память о себе греки оставили архитектурные памятники…

На фото остатки античного города Херсонеса,  расположенный в пределах нынешнего Севастополя.

1424654278_hersones

История Крыма очень связана и с историей России. С VIII-IX веков русские князья тесно общались с крымчанами. Арабы даже называли Черное море Русским морем.

В начале XIII в. монгольские племена, жившие в Центральной Азии решили завоевать Восточную Европу. Весь тяжелый удар  от нашествия захватчиков пришелся на Русь. Последствия были тяжелыми. Множество людей было убито, не меньше уведено в рабство. В некоторых разрушенных городах и селах жизнь так и не возродилась.

original

В итоге одни государства прекратили существование, другие попали в многолетнюю зависимость от завоевателей.

А в 1223 году и Крым был завоеван монголами. Монголо-татары разрушили самый богатый из торговых центров Крыма — Судак. Жизнь полуострова стало чрезвычайно тяжелым. Золотоордынские завоеватели обложили жителей Крыма тяжелой данью, вывозили рабов и продавали в другие страны.

После распада Золотой Орды в Крыму образовалось Крымское ханство.

kazФото с www.krimoved-library.ru

В 1475 г. на Крымский полуостров вторглись войска султанской Турции. Они захватили и разорили Крымское ханство, и Крым оказался под властью Турции (Османской империи). Османское господство в Крыму закончилось после русско-турецкой войны 1768-1774 годов. В 1783 году Крым вошёл в состав России (Манифест Екатерины II от 8 апреля 1783 года).

Крым расцвел, начала бурно развиваться торговля и промышленность. В 1783 году был построен город-крепость Севастополь как база Черноморского флота, через год, в 1784 году, — Симферополь.

На фото Севастополь

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

На Чёрном море строились порты — Одесса, Николаев, быстрыми темпами развивалось сельское хозяйство и торговля, промышленность. Возникали новые городки и сёла. На полуостров прибывали русские, украинские, молдавские, армянские, немецкие и другие переселенцы.

Екатерина II, совершившая в 1787 г. путешествие в Крым, называла полуостров «драгоценнейшей жемчужиной» в своей короне.


Почти 170 лет крымская земля наслаждалась покоем и миром, но в середине XIX в. пришла военная гроза. В 1853 г. началась война между Российской империей, с одной стороны, и коалицией в составе Британской, Французской и Турцией, с другой. Основные сражения развернулись в Крыму, поэтому и саму войну назвали Крымской.

Здесь проявилось небывалое мужество и героизм русских офицеров, солдат и матросов. С началом войны эскадра Черноморского флота под командованием вице-адмирала П.С. Нахимова уничтожила в ноябре 1853 г. в Синопской бухте турецкий флот.

iv_nakhimov_2hr

13 сентября противник осадил Севастополь. Началась знаменитая Первая оборона Севастополя, длившаяся 349 дней, до 27 августа 1855 г. Наблюдатели поражались стойкости простых жителей, участвовавших в защите города.

5

Фото с crimeamap.ru/oborona_sevastopolya_panorama

Россия проиграла войну.

Шли годы, шли века…

В гражданскую войну, 1917 года, из Крыма уезжали русские офицеры в далекие земли. После Гражданской войны Крым вошел в состав Советского Союза (1922 г.).

Война, начавшаяся 22 июня 1941 г., очень быстро докатилась до крымской земли. Началась Вторая героическая оборона города, длившаяся 250 дней.

Дейнека_оборона_Севастополя

За оборону Севастополя 126 воинов были удостоены высокого звания Героя Советского Союза, тысячи награждены орденами и медалями. Недаром Севастополь зовется городом русской славы, городом русских моряков.

После Великой Отечественной войны в 1954 году Крымская область согласно Указу Президиума Верховного Совета СССР была передана в состав Украинской ССР. В 1992 г. Крымская АССР была переименована в Республику Крым в составе Украины.

Перемены всегда происходят незаметно. Мир меняется быстрее, чем мы можем себе представить…

16 марта 2014 г. состоялся референдум за воссоединение Крыма с Россией, где «за»  проголосовало большинство жителей.

Референдум — это всенародный опрос при решении важных вопросов в жизни государства.

18 марта 2014 года был подписан договор о вступлении Республики Крым и города Севастополя в состав Российской Федерации.

Новая карта России…

map_color_2000px_russia_with_crimea_and_sevastopol

Материал разработан по:

 Примерный сценарий урока для учащихся основной школы, посвященного годовщине принятия Крыма и Севастополя в состав Российской Федерации

Методические рекомендации для школ Российской Федерации по проведению уроков и внеклассных мероприятий, посвященных воссоединению России и Крыма

Материалы к учебному занятию

КРЫМ В ИСТОРИИ РОССИИ

МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ

 


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