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Обучение грамоте «Буквы ъ и ь» | Класс39

   
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Обучение грамоте «Буквы ъ и ь»
5 марта 2015 Елена Владимировна

Сklass39_113егодня на занятии мы познакомимся с еще более удивительными знаками.

Вы уже знаете, что для каждого речевого звука есть свой знак — буква, но в русском языке есть две буквы Ъ и Ь, которые НЕ ОБОЗНАЧАЮТ ЗУКОВЗачем тогда они нужны? Вот об этом мы и узнаем на нашем занятии….

Мягкий знак — хитрый знак.
Не сказать его никак.
Он не произносится,
Но в слово часто просится.
Почему у дома УГОЛ
Превратился сразу в УГОЛЬ,
Без пожара, просто так?
Это сделал мягкий знак.

Благодаря Ъ или Ь, мы слышим как изменяется звучание слова.

Если в слове есть Ь, то буква после которой он стоит звучит мягко. Вот послушайте/посмотрите слова. Скажите в каких словах есть мягкий знак и что он изменяет?

  • УГОЛ — УГОЛЬ
  • БАНКА — БАНЬКА
  • ЕЛ — ЕЛЬ
  • ПОЛКА — ПОЛЬКА

А Ъ — твердый знак очень любит играть в прятки.

СЪЕЛ   ПОДЪЁМ     ПОДЪЕЗД     СЪЁМКА

Но в тоже время, если мы не напишем его в слове, то слово приобретает совершенно другой смысл.

  • СЪЕЛ  —  СЕЛ
  • СЪЁМКА  —  СЁМКА

А вот и сами буквы: Это твердый знак.

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Мягкий знак — он делает буквы мягче.
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У мягкого знака есть ДВЕ работы. Мягкий знак СМЯГЧАЕТ, то есть делает согласный звук мягким, а ещё мягкий знак РАЗДЕЛЯЕТ.

Буква Ь разделяет согласную и гласную Е, Ё, Ю, Я, И. Таким образом, показывает, что при чтении между ними надо сделать паузу. Вот почему его называют РАЗДЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫМ.

Понаблюдайте сова: ПЕРО и ПЬЕРО…. Проговорите медленно… Что заметили?

В первом случае наша необычная буква Е осталась одной [Э] — [п`эро], а во втором случае благодаря тому, что мягкий знак разделил согласную и гласную Е, получилось [п`йэро], то есть буква Е осталась сама собой [йэ]

1. И г ра   «Кто внимательный?»

По последним звукам слов стол, окно, гусь – составьте новое слово.

О т в е т: лось.

2. Что общего в словах: белье, пальто, обезьяна, ружье, пыль?

3. Что общего в названиях этих предметов: подъезд, объявление, подъемный (кран), съедобный, съесть?

4. Игра «Кто больше?»

  • Придумайте слова, в которых один звук обозначается двумя буквами. (Соль, день, конь, тень.)
  • Вы умеете считать? Тогда быстро назовите числа, оканчивающиеся на ь (от 5 до 20).

5Найди спрятанные буквы ъ и ь. Обведи их.

Найди спрятанные знаки Ъ Ь
6. Раскрась только те ключики, которые похожи на букву Ъ (твёрдый знак). Соедини их с Буратино.

знаки Ъ Ь

кубик с буквами
7. Раскрась только те ромашки, на которых буква Ь (мягкий знак) написана правильно. Соедини их с бабочкой.

знаки Ъ Ь

 

8.  Игра «Лесенка»

1. Мягкий знак «Ь».                       2. Твердый знак «Ъ».

– – – ь                                              – ъ – – –

– – – – ь                                           – – ъ – – –


– – – – – ь                                        – – – ъ – – –

Возможный вариант ответа.        Возможный вариант ответа:

лось, олень, лошадь.                          съезд, объезд, подъезд.

9. И г р а   «Занимательные модели»

Составьте слова по следующим моделям:

1. – – – ь   (Конь, лось, мель.)

2. – – – ь – –   (Пальто, письмо, коньки.)

3. – ъ – – –   (Съезд, въезд, съели.)

4. – – – ъ – – –   (Подъезд, разъезд.)

10. И г р а  «Слово рассыпалось»

Соберите рассыпавшиеся слова:

1. Ювьаг (вьюга), льем (мель).

2. Лъес (съел), зиъня (изъян).

11. И г р а «Закончи слово»

1. Бук… (-варь),   тет… (-радь),   сло… (-варь),   ян… (-варь), фев… (-раль), мед… (-ведь),

2. Объ… (-езд, -ект, -ем, -единение, -явление, -яснение), подъ… (-езд, -ем), разъ… (-езд, -емный, -яренный, -яснить).

12. И г р а  «Превращение слов»

  • Какую букву в слове кость надо заменить, чтобы получить название желанного в доме человека? (Гость.)
  • Какую букву нужно добавить, чтобы угол превратился в уголь?
    (Мягкий знак.)
  • Вставьте мягкий знак, чтобы образовались новые слова: Коля (колья), пенки (пеньки), ел (ель), семя (семья), хор (хорь), мол (моль).
  • Какую букву нужно добавить к слову сел, чтобы получилось слово, обозначающее завершение принятия пищи? (Твердый знак – съел.)
  • Какую букву нужно добавить, а какую отнять от слова семь, чтобы получилось слово съем? (Твердый знак добавить, мягкий знак отнять.)

13. И г р а  «Грамматическая арифметика»

  1. 1. Шина – а + ель = ?   (Шинель.)
  2. 2. Каракуль – куль + мель = ?   (Карамель.)
  3. 3. Сода – да + боль = ?   (Соболь.)

14. Напиши Слова с ь.

  • Небольшое помещение для купания.
  • Способ передвижения.
  • Яркое освещение горизонта неба.
  • Рисунок на кости, дереве.
  • Доля, участь, случай.

О т в е т : банька, ходьба, зорька, резьба, судьба

15. Напиши Слова с Ь и Ъ.

  • Крупные боковые ветки дерева.
  • Вьющееся растение.
  • Основное оружие охотника.
  • Какой-либо предмет.
  • Человекообразное животное.
  • Собрание.

О т в е т : сучья, вьюнок, ружье, объект, обезьяна, съезд.

16. 

Буква Р перевернулась –
Мягким знаком обернулась.

Возьми чёрный карандаш и закрась все части рисунка, в которых ты видишь букву Ь.

8676_html_m1dc3e38e

17. 

Из ведра не просто так
Нам воды напиться:
Нужен ковшик — твердый знак,
Чтобы не облиться.

Возьми чёрный карандаш и закрась все участки рисунка с буквой Ъ.

8676_html_m59770710

18. Пишем…

klass39_]

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