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Интернет-урок по окружающему миру «Экосистема луга» | Класс39

   
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Интернет-урок по окружающему миру «Экосистема луга»
26 декабря 2012 Елена Владимировна

На этом Интернет-уроке по окружающему миру мы совершим с вами прогулку на луг…. Что такое луг. Какие растения растут на лугу и каких животных можно встретить — всё это вы узнаете на нашем Интернет-уроке «Экосистема луга»…

На прошлом Интернет-уроке по окружающему миру «Экосистема болот» мы говорили, что экосистема болота может измениться, образуя луг. Это произойдёт, если болото осушится.

Ковёр травы вокруг.

Цветов нарядных венчики, звонкие кузнечики.
Мотыльки игривые, жуки неторопливые.
С мёдом сладким пчёлки, песня перепёлки.
Мяты аромат, лета нежный взгляд
И до белых мух с дудочкой пастух. 

Луг — это обширная территория с травянистой растительностью.

Познакомимся с растениями лугового сообщества. Среди луговых производителей прежде всего нужно отметить злаки. Это травянистые растения со стеблем — соломиной и невзрачными цветками.

Цветки злаковых трав столь малы и невзрачны, что большинство людей не подозревают об их существовании. Растут злаки нередко вместе, образуя густые дернины или даже кочки из сплетённых корней. Во время суровой зимы именно в дернине переживают неблагоприятный период будущие молодые ростки. 

Злаки луга:

Мятлик луговой

Тимофеевка

Овсяница луговая

 

Овсюг

 

Травы себя чувствуют лучше, чем деревья, поскольку им требуется гораздо меньше воды. Вот почему травянистые растения покрывают такие большие территории. Большая часть травянистого растения — подземная, это его корни. В периоды засух травы переходят в состояние покоя и оживают с возвратом дождей. Зимой они отмирают до корней, а на следующую весну развивают побеги, снова дают семена.

Некоторые травы — однолетние, живут всего один год, и для того, чтобы вырасти на будущий год, им нужны только семена (а не корни и семена).
Есть у трав и другое преимущество перед деревьями. Листья травы растут из своих оснований постоянно. Если их общипывают травоядные животные, листья отрастают вновь. То же происходит, когда травы скашивает человек. Подрезанная до основания трава вырастает снова и снова.

Злаки- самые многочисленные растения лугов. Но цветки их невзрачны и опыляются ветром. Красоту луга придаёт яркий ковёр из разнотравья.

Шмели, пчёлы и бабочки снуют между ними в поисках сладкого нектара. При этом они переносят пыльцу с одного растения на другой, опыляя цветы. На месте цветков образуются плоды и семена. Они распространяются по лугу, чтобы на следующий год прорасти и дать жизнь новым растениям.

Василёк

Славянская легенда гласит: одна русалка влюбилась в юношу по имени Василий. Но тот не ответил ей взаимностью и отказался последовать за ней в подводное царство. Влюблённая русалка обиделась и превратила юношу в синий цветок, который стали называть по его имени — василёк.

Васильки бывают не только синего цвета, но и розового, белого, желтого, фиолетового.

Лютик

Пастушья сумка

Ромашка

Белую ромашку нельзя перепутать ни с чем. Сразу чувствуется приятный аромат. Но ромашка аптечная обладает не только приятным запахом, но и действенными лечебными свойствами.

Мышиный горошек

Клевер

Научное название клевера означает «трилистник». Как вы думаете, почему?… Листок клевера состоит из трех частей. Цветки у клевера бывают красные, розовые, белые. Клевер и шмели — лучшие друзья. Единственными насекомыми-опылителями, способными опылять клевер, являются шмели.

На Украине клевер называют «конюшина», потому что раньше именно клевером откармливали боевых коней.


Клевер — медонос. Клеверный мёд относится к числу лучших.

Колокольчики

Как вы думаете, за что колокольчик получил свое название? …Форма его цветка похожа на звонкий колокольчик. Цветок колокольчика бывает лиловый, изредка белый. Цветки у колокольчика ароматные.

Вьюнок

Название этого растения рассказывает о нем. Вьется, обвивается вокруг других растений, потому и назывется вьюнком.

Зверобой

Наши предки считали зверобой растением с чудодейственными свойствами, помогающим от всевозможных болезней. Так, он убивает микробы, затягивает раны, останавливает нагноения.

Давно заметили, что жвачные животные белые или бело-пятнистые, поедая зверобой в яркие солнечные дни, страдают от кожного зуда, а в последующем — от язв и воспалений кожи, а иногда гибнут — отсюда название «зверобой».

Лопух

 

Недолгая жизнь у травянистых растений. Василёк и пастушья сумка осенью погибают, а весной всходят их семена. Лопух живёт 2 года. Первый год он накапливает в корне питательные вещества. Это позволяет ему на втрой год вырасти высоким и дать много семян.

— Что же произойдёт со старыми, мёртвыми остатками растений?…

Верно, «мусорщики» /»разрушители», обитающие в почве, разрушают органические вещества мёртвых растений и превращают их в простые вещества, которые снова могут быть использованы новыми растениями. Благодаря «разрушителям» поддерживается высокое плодородие луговых почв.

Луг — это не только травы и цветы, а еще и насекомые — большие друзья цветов, и пастухи со стадами домашних животных, пасущихся на лугу.

Животные луга – это около 30 различных видов и все они живут тихо, для людей почти незаметно, но сообщество их строго упорядочено и очень интересно. Здесь для каждого найдется уютная норка или в зарослях совсем незаметное птичье гнездышко.

Обитатели луга…

кузнечик

щелкун полосатый

 навозник обыкновенный

капустница

махаон

луговой мотылек

пчела 

перепел

чибис

полевой жаворонок

луговой чекан

прыткая ящерица

травяная лягушка

полёвка

мышь-малютка

крот

Животные луга разнообразны и неповторимы, здесь уживаются много лет подряд грызуны, а также земноводные.

Если почва влажная, то рано или поздно на месте травянистых зарослей появятся ростки кустов и деревьев. Своими кронами подросшие деревца будут затенять луговые растения. Луг будет сменяться лесом… Но об этом на следующем Интернет-уроке.


12 комментариев  
  • rhffyyh writes:
    1 ноября, 201415:52at

    это вы назваете презентацыей!!!!!!!!!! Это ужас!!!!!!!

    • Елена Владимировна writes:
      1 ноября, 201416:12at

      Это называется презентацИей!

    • Аноним writes:
      18 апреля, 201514:05at

      это очень интересно! Спасибо!

  • липа writes:
    17 декабря, 201416:39at

    это куртой видео-урок

  • Инна writes:
    25 августа, 201509:58at

    Потрясающая работа. Так не хватает в помощь мне как педагогу таких уроков!

    • Елена Владимировна writes:
      25 августа, 201513:52at

      Спасибо за приятные слова! Пользуйтесь. Мой сайт как копилка, сама возвращаюсь к уже собранным материалам.

      • Татьяна writes:
        30 сентября, 201514:29at

        Дорогая Елена Владимировна! Вы просто Великая труженица! Такого сайта я не встречала ещё, с таким богатейшим материалом по всем предметам. Мне уже не нужно говорить какой Вы Человек. какой Вы Педагог.Вы талантище с огромной любовью к ДЕТЯМ!!!

        • Елена Владимировна writes:
          30 сентября, 201514:42at

          Татьяна! Спасибо огромное за очень приятные слова! Рада, что моя педагогическая копилка полезная. Удачи и вам!

  • Рома writes:
    21 декабря, 201511:50at

    Классная презентация!!! Спасибо большое!

  • Аноним writes:
    28 апреля, 201610:44at

    Нормальный сайт ставлю 5

  • Аноним writes:
    14 ноября, 201610:44at

    как найти презинтацию

  • Аноним writes:
    24 января, 201714:54at

    Класс!


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