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Интересно… Новый год в разных странах | Класс39

   
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Интересно… Новый год в разных странах
9 января 2020 Елена Владимировна

Сегодня наш Интернет-урок посвящен празднику -Новый год. Все мы любим этот праздник. Красочные нарядные улицы, дома. Игрушки, хлопушки, гирлянды, сюрпризы, подарки… Любопытно, а как празднуют Новый год в других странах?…

Итак, новогодние традиции в Германии. Здесь этот праздник семейный. Когда все соберутся за праздничным столом, происходит церемония обмена подарками, которая даже имеет свое название — Бешерунг. В конце пиршества — der Lebekuchen — коврижка-пряник. В Новогоднюю Ночь немцы, по старой традиции, как только часы начинают отбивать полночь, взбираются на стулья, столы, кресла и с последним ударом дружно, с радостными приветствиями «впрыгивают» в новый год.

В Польше Новый год называется Днем святого Сильвестра. Святой Сильвестр — римский епископ, который умер в канун нового, 336 года. Так как долгое время, более шести веков, Новый год и день святого Сильвестра существовали бок о бок, но каждый сам по себе. Дед Мороз в Польше зовется Святым Николаем. Настоящий Новый год в Польше — явно не домашний праздник, поэтому для нее характерны массовые гуляния.

Польша славится своими традициями и обычаями на Новый год. На новогоднем и рождественском праздничном столе у поляков непременно должны присутствовать 12 блюд (по числу апостолов и месяцев). Из них не одного мясного. А самым главным блюдом на новогоднем столе является карп. На Новый год в Польше также принято печь фафернуху – печенье с медом и орехами, а еще специальные хлебцы в форме фигурок животных и птиц.

В Испании сохранилась старинная традиия — под бой часов в новогоднюю ночь успеть съесть 12 виноградных ягод, по одной за каждый из двенадцати грядущих месяцев.

В Италии ждут не Деда Мороза, а добрую Фею Бефану. Она прилетает ночью на волшебной метле, открывает двери маленьким золотым ключиком и, войдя в комнату, где спят дети, наполняет подарками детские чулки, специально подвешенные к камину. Тому, кто плохо учился или шалил, Бефана оставляет щепотку золы или уголек. А итальянский Дед Мороз — Баббо Натале.  
В Италии считается, что Новый год надо начинать, освободившись от всего старого. Поэтому в Новогоднюю ночь принято выбрасывать из окон старые вещи. Считается, что освободившееся место непременно займут новые вещи. 
 На новогоднем столе у итальянцев обязательно присутствуют орехи, чечевица и виноград — символы долголетия, здоровья и благополучия. 
    

Во Франции встречают Пер Ноэль, который приходит в новогоднюю ночь и оставляет подарки в детских башмаках. 
Тот, кому достается боб, запеченный в новогодний пирог, получает титул «бобового короля» и в праздничную ночь все подчиняются его приказам. 

В Англии Деда Мороза зовут Санта Клаус. В новогоднии дни для детей в театрах разыгрываются представления на сюжеты старинных английских сказок. Всю новогоднюю ночь уличные торговцы продают игрушки, свистульки, пищалки, маски, воздушные шары.

В Англии возник обычай обмениваться к Новому году поздравительными открытками. Первая новогодняя открытка была напечатана в Лондоне в 1843 году. 
Перед сном дети ставят на стол тарелку для подарков, которые им принесет Санта Клаус, а в башмаки кладут сено — угощение для ослика. 
 В Англии о приходе Нового года возвещает колокол. Правда звонить он начинает немного раньше полуночи и делает это «шепотом» — одеяло, которым он укутан, мешает ему продемонстрировать всю мощь. Но ровно в двенадцать колокола раздевают, и они начинают громогласно петь гимны Новому году. 
 В английских домах к новогоднему столу подают индейку с каштанами и жареным картофелем под соусом, а также тушеную брюссельскую капусту с мясными пирогами, после чего следуют пудинг, сладости, фрукты.


В Венгрии в первые секунды Нового года предпочитают свистеть с помощью детских дудочек, рожков, свистульек.  Считается , что именно они отгоняют от жилища злых духов и призываеют радость, благополучие. Готовясь к празднику, венгры не забывают о магической силе новогодних блюд: фасоль и грох сохраняют силу духа и тела, яблоки — красоту и любовь, орехи способны защитить от беды, чеснок — от болезней, а мед — подсластить жизнь.

В Нидерландах и Бельгии на Новый год пекут праздничные печенья или вафели. В Нидерландах существует и особый новогодний напиток «слем» . Его приготовляют из горячего молока, в которое кладут чай, сахар, корицу, цедру лимона, шафран, гвоздику и мускатный орех. Во Фландрии к обеду приготовляют рис, жареное мясо и пудинг. Особенно разнообразны виды новогодних печений, хлеба, вафель. Формы для новогодних тортов украшаются искусной гравировкой, надписями.

В Китае Новый год невозможно себе представить без фейерверков, распугивающих нечисть. Во время праздничной процессии, которая проходит по улицам Китая в новогоднюю ночь, люди зажигают множество фонарей. Это делается для того, чтобы осветить себе путь в Новый год.

В Японии дети встречают Новый год в новой одежде, полагая, что это принесет удачу и здоровье. В новогоднюю ночь кладут под подушку рисунок с изображением своей мечты, тогда желание должно исполниться. В первые минуты нового года японцы начинают смеяться. Они верят, что смех принесет им удачу в приходящем году. В первую новогоднюю ночь принято посещать храм. В храмах отбивают 108 ударов в колокол. С каждым ударом, как считают японцы, уходит все плохое, что не должно повториться в Новом Году. Чтобы не впустить злых духов, японцы вешают пучки соломы перед входом в дома, что, как они полагают, приносит счастье. В домах на видном месте устанавливают рисовые лепешки, поверх которых кладут мандарины, символизирующие счастье, здоровье и долголетие. В Японии существует традиция: перед Новым годом дарить открытки с изображением животного, которое соответствует этому году. Дарят также игрушки и сувениры. Одним из самых ярких украшений японского дома перед Новым годом является кадомацу («сосна у входа»). Кадомацу — приветствие Божеству Новогоднего праздника — преимущественно изготовляют из сосны, бамбука, сплетенных рисовых соломинок. Украшают ветками папоротника и мандарина.

Новый год в Индии

В Америке главным праздником считается Рождество, а не Новый год, в принципе, как у многих европейских стран. На Рождество главное внимание обращается не на сам подарок, а на его упаковку — коробки и коробочки, футляры и футлярчики. В рождественский вечер семья и друзья с восторгом разоблачают подарки, которые могут быть завернутыми в десять одежек, как качан капусты.

Новый год в Бразилии

Новый год в Африке

Какие же у нас в России новогодние традиции?


2 комментария  
  • Коля writes:
    17 января, 201711:08at

    Класс!

  • StevenSlemy writes:
    14 апреля, 202012:53at

    Привед


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